Study of the Physical and Functional Properties of Pectin Extracted from Some Plant Residues
The study was conducted at the College of Agriculture / University of Tikrit. The study aims to extract pectin from the peels of some plant sources using different extraction solutions, study its physical and functional properties. The results of the extracted pectin yield using citric acid (0.5
N), ammonium oxalate (at a concentration of 2%), oxalic acid (2%) and hydrochloric acid (0.5
N), showed that the highest percentage of pectin was for citric acid, as it reached (64.16, 24.70, 33.33, 62.5, 45.83 and 58.33) % for the peels of eggplant, watermelon, pumpkin, orange, pomelo and pomegranate, respectively. The lowest percentages of hydrochloric acid were (16.6, 10, 7.5, 24.1, 21.6 and 6.6%) for the same samples, respectively.
The study of the physical properties of pectin extracted with citric acid and ammonium oxalate showed that the viscosity values, expressed by the time of the solution run-off, ranged between (1.5208 - 1.2161), (1.7250 - 1.6083), (1.6958 - 1.0875), (1.7416 - 1.5941), (2.1208 - 1.7875), (1.3916-1.3041) two years respectively, while the time required for holding for pectin extracted with citricacid was (8, 7, 8, 7, 8 and 7) minutes and for ammonium oxalate (10, 6, 7, 8, 7 and 6
The study of the functional properties of pectin extracted with citric acid and ammonium oxalate showed the ability of the activity of emulsion that is ranging between (55 and 53), (52 and 47), (54 and 46), (59 and 54), (57 and 48), (50 and 44). % of pectin from the peels of eggplant, watermelon, pumpkin, orange, pomelo and pomegranate, respectively.
The estimation of the solubility of pectin in water and cold alkali models was also recorded, soluble and insoluble, and total solubility in hot water and hot alkalis. The results of estimating the holding capacity of water or oil for pectin extracted with citric acid showed higher degrees than pectin extracted with ammonium oxalate.